If I had relied entirely upon the back cover synopsis, I doubt I would have read Winifred Holby’s final novel, South Riding.
The blurb gave me the impression the focus would be on Sarah Burton, the idealistic new head of a girls’ school in a fictional Yorkshire seaside town and her clashes with conservative locals. It sounded rather tame.
Fortunately there are plenty of bloggers around whose opinions I have learned to trust more than a publisher’s synopsis.
South Riding is a novel that evokes the lives of people in a Yorkshire community that is trying to recover from the tumult of the First World War. Former soldiers, local politicians, religious leaders and the working men who struggle to make a living: all are conscious that their world is changing. They just have different ideas about what should change and how.
One of the chief advocates for change is the outsider Sarah Burton. She’s a spirited woman whose idealism is matched with an eminently practical nature. Faced with a tumble down building and a school that doesn’t have the greatest of academic reputations, she decides her first battle ground will be the toilet arrangements.
I don’t really mind a hall the size of a cupboard, a pitch dark cellar-gymnasium and laboratories housed in a broken-down conservatory; but these beetle-hunted cloakrooms I will not have. They’re enough to constipate any child for months. I will have those altered.
Sanitary provisions are but a step towards her greater goal of a world from which disease, poverty and ignorance have been eradicated. In her opinion that will take government intervention.
Conservatism Versus Progress
Opposing her is the book’s representative of the gentility; local squire Robert Carne. He’s conservative by nature, opposed in principle to the idea that local government should expand its sphere of influence. Carne is very much a man of the past not the future. He sticks to traditional methods of farming but despite his best efforts he cannot make his estate pay its way and his manor home is crumbling about his ears.
His conservatism also puts him at odds with other members of the local county council, Alderman Snaith and Councillor Joe Astell, who connive to push ahead with their own plan for change. But their desire to replace a slum area with a new town, complete with new job opportunities, is not motivated entirely by altruistic principles.
The clash between the forces of tradition and progress is played out in the chamber of the county council. This is where decisions are made affecting the lives of everyone in South Riding: whether roads will be built, slums cleared, a new maternity hospital established. But anyone expecting to hear lively debates about critical issues, quickly gets their ideas squashed. When young journalist Lovell Brown witnesses his first meeting of the county council, he discovers it is far from an exciting spectacle.
Without emotion, without haste, without even, so far as Lovell could discern, any noticeable interest, the South Riding County Council ploughed through its agenda. The General mumbled; the clerk shuffled papers, the chairman of committees answered desultory questions.
It’s a testament to Holtby’s skills that she makes us care about what happens in this mundane world of local politics.
Desire Versus Reality
Politics aside, South Riding is a very human novel. Holtby isn’t afraid to show life as it really was in the 1930s and that there are no easy answers. Sarah declares she wants her pupils “to know they can do anything,” but the case of one girl, Lydia Holly, shows the gulf between her desire and what is possible. Lydia is a bright and intelligent girl who lives in “the Shacks” – a set of disused railway carriages. She dreams of a scholarship and learning but her ambitions have to be set aside when she is required to become a substitute mother for her many younger brothers and sisters.
All of human life is depicted in South Riding. Almost every character in this novel (there are some 160 of them) has a problem. Cancer for one, poverty for another, a loveless marriage for a third. We feel for all of them but Winifred Holtby shows that a happy ending is possible for only a few.
Rather than the plot it’s the way Holtby brings these characters to life and shows them as distinctly human with their shortcomings as well as seams of goodness, that makes South Riding such an enjoyable read.
South Riding by Winifred Holtby: Endnotes
Winifred Holtby came from a prosperous family who had a farm in the East Riding of Yorkshire. She joined the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) in early 1918 but only shortly after she arrived in France, World War 1 came to an end. She returned to England and began studying at Oxford University. There she met Vera Brittain, author of Testament of Britain. The two shared a flat in London after their graduation, intending to launch careers as writers.
She published six novels between 1923 and 1933, together with collections of short stories and poetry. During her life she was better known as a journalist than as an author. She wrote for more than 20 newspapers and magazines, including the Manchester Guardian newspaper.
In 1931 Winifred was diagnosed as suffering from Bright’s disease ( a form of liver disease) and given just two years to live. Aware of her impending death, Holtby devoted her remaining life to completing her final novel South Riding.
Winifred Holtby died on 29 September 1935, aged 37.
South Riding was published in 1936. It’s a fictional county based on the East Riding where Winifred’ was born and where her mother was an alderman (an elected representative to the local council). The book won the James Tait Black Memorial Prize for 1936. Holtby bequeathed the rights to her alma mater, Somerville College, Oxford. The college has used royalties from the book and her earlier novel Pavements at Anderby to fund a scholarship in her name.
To understand her impact on literature, its worth reading the article “Winifred Holtby: author, feminist, campaigner” published in The Guardian in 2017.
It’s a shame that her other novels are not more easily available. I thought Persephone had published several o but I can see only one on their website: The Crowded Street. Virago fortunately has a few more in their Virago Modern Classics imprint.
This review was posted originally in 2018. This updated version incorporates biographical information about the author and an updated image of the book cover. Formatting has been changed to improve readability.