Six Degrees of Separation

From geishas to servants in six steps

Time for another Six Degrees of Separation hosted by Kate in Kew and for once we are starting with a book I know.

memoirs of geisha

Memoirs of a Geisha by Arthur Golden was the first novel I read which gave me an insight into Japanese culture. I don’t remember anything about the plot, I just recall that the book described extensively how geishas are trained to act as entertainers and hostesses. As part of their role they are expected to demonstrate great skill in Japanese classical music and traditional dance as well as witty conversation.


Conversation of a very different kind is at the heart of The Housekeeper and the Professor by the Japanese author Yoko Ogawa. It’s a novella set in modern day Japan about the relationship between a Professor who was a brilliant mathematician until he was injured in a road accident and the woman who becomes his 10th housekeeper (all the previous holders of that job found him too strange). They bond over prime numbers and number sequences.


For an alternative model of a housekeeper let’s turn to one of Daphne du Maurier’s best known novels, Rebecca. In it we encounter Mrs Danvers, head housekeeper at Manderley, the grand mansion in Cornwall belonging to Maxim de Winter and his dead wife Rebecca. Mrs D (we never learn her first name) is a fearsome looking character with a “skull’s face” of high cheekbones and sunken eyes. Not exactly the kind of person to make Maxim’s new wife, a young and naive girl, feel comfortable in her new home, especially when, at every stage, Mrs D is ready to point out how poorly she compares to the glamorous Rebecca.


Maxim met his new wife while on holiday in the French Riviera. It’s during a holiday in that part of the Mediterranean that one of the characters in my next book, meets her future husband. Amy March is the youngest of the four sisters in Louisa M Alcott’s Little Women.  She’s vain and self-centered, the daughter least likely to sacrifice her own pleasures for the good of others.  But on holiday she matures and reaches a decision about her artistic ambitions and her future. Her reward is to be courted and hitched to Laurie, a rich and handsome boy who lived next door to the March family.


Pilgrims Progress

The original readers of Little Women were of course left in no doubt that this is a book designed not just to entertain but to instruct them about how to be better women, ones who put domestic duties and family above self interest. To help them in their journey they have the wisdom and good sense of their mother and a copy of John Buynan’s Pilgrims’ Progress. 

Bunyan’s work, published in 1678, has been described as the first novel in English. It’s a claim that’s been disputed — there are at least nine other novels which have been similarly described. Ian Watt, a leading literary academic, argued in favour of Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe, published more than forty years later.


The lecturers on my English degree course disagreed and put their weight behind Pamela: Or, Virtue Rewarded by the printer Samuel Richardson. I don’t know if you’ve ever read this tale of the trials and tribulations of a beautiful 15-year-old maidservant called Pamela Andrews. Her master is a country landowner who pesters her, kidnaps her and tries to seduce and rape her multiple times. Eventually he rewards this robust defence of virtue by marrying her and introducing her into high society.

The story sounds interesting and it was entertaining for a time but I remember struggling to get through it because it felt so repetitive and became rather dull. One of reasons I didn’t care for this book may have been that the version I read is substantially different from the one Richardson wrote. Apparently this novel went through revision after revision because Richardson was extremely sensitive to criticism (of which there was a lot, usually on the grounds of morality or manners) so kept making tweaks. In an article marking a new Oxford edition in 2000  more closely based on that original, John Mullen showed how these changes robbed the book of a lot of its vitality.

pearl earring

For readers in the eighteenth century, however, this book was certainly different to anything else they had ever written. Most notably its ‘heroine’ was a low-bred creature, a mere servant girl, when they were accustomed more to reading about courtly ladies and women of virtue. Some of them were scandalised at the idea that mere servants could become part of a higher class. Who was this upstart some of them questioned?

Pamela may have been one of the first characters in fiction to be shown moving well beyond her station in life and adopting manners felt more suited to her betters. But she was not the last, which brings me another maid servant and my final link in the chain. Tracy Chevalier’s Girl with a Pearl Earring puts the young girl Griet into the home of the painter Johannes Vermier. Griet is an intelligent girl who shows she has an eye for art. But Vermeer’s wife suspects the girl is up to more than mixing paints when she is alone with the painter in his attic studio. Chevalier could simply have written a story about an illicit affair but she made the novel far more interesting by focusing on the restraint between master and servant. And in the end, Griet does get her reward….

And so we reach the end of a chain which has followed a trail from Japan to America, France and England and ended up in the Netherlands. I never expected this chain to take this route but that’s half the fun of the Six Degrees meme, you never know where it’s going or where it will end.


What do you need to know about me? 1. I'm from Wales which is one of the countries in the UK and must never be confused with England. 2. My life has always revolved around the written and spoken word. I worked as a journalist for nine years then in international corporate communications 3. My tastes in books are eclectic. I love realism and hate science fiction and science fantasy. 4. I am trying to broaden my reading horizons geographically by reading more books in translation

13 thoughts on “From geishas to servants in six steps

  • What thoughtful links, Karen. I find I often go blank as to the content of books when I’m looking back on lists of books I’ve read, and end up linking by title or cover. Your links dig deep!

    • Sometimes I get myself tied up in knots when thinking about links, then reach a blockend and have to start again. I might try doing titles one month

  • Several of my favourites in your list: Rebecca and Girl with a Pearl Earring being right up there. My very limited understanding of which was the first novel has Pamela in top spot. I’ve read Bunyan and Defoe’s contenders – but I suspect I’ll pass on Richardson’s! Brilliant links 🙂

    • The lists of contenders for first novel status are all very British centered – apparently there are much earlier works from Japan that people have described as novels

  • That was fun! I never would have thought to make some of those connections!

  • I love your inclusion of Mrs Danvers summoning up memories of the wonderful Judith Anderson in Hitchcock’s film version, gliding in and out of shot. And your mention of Ian Watt’s book took me right back to my Open University MA studies!

    • You did the OU Masters? Gosh that was brave. i looked at it but I didn’t like the very structured way you had to create your dissertation. My brain just doesn’t function that way

      • I admit I did find the dissertation the hardest part but the course introduced me to books I wouldn’t otherwise have read. The support was great, both from tutors and other students. At one time, I did have the idea to continue on and do a PhD but I think that ship may have sailed. Blogging will have to take it’s place as exercise for my brain!

  • Some nice lateral leaps here, Karen. It seems that most of us didn’t find Memoirs of a Geisha very memorable except, perhaps, for that cover.

  • Oh my goodness, I only have to see the cover of Pamela and I feel a migraine coming on. It’s by far the most painfully boring book I’ve ever read!

    • It is rather slow going – I kept thinking, or just give in to him and lets get this book over. Not a very politically correct response I;’m afraid

  • I love the leap from the Japanese housekeeper to Mrs Danvers, well done with that one!
    I’m interested to hear what you have to say about Pamela. It’s a struggle to read most of those very early ‘novels’, but some are definitely better than others. I was very fond of Pilgrim when I read it…

    • I found with the early novels that they take a bit of getting into. Some were easier than others – Tom Jones was an easy one if I remember.


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